Annotated bibliographies are important for advancing academic understanding in your chosen field of study
It is crucial that you get a proper overview of the subject. You will need knowledge in the past and present thinking by experts on the issue. Make the research and open process and have fun with it. Look at it as an adventure and have the curiosity to gain deep insights. When gathering information, consider different sources of information to get varied angles on the same issues that will serve to enrich your content further. Make sure to draw material from academic sources only. Give weight to books, peer-reviewed articles, and published research. The information from such sources can be trusted as they present content that has been edited and certified as being scientific, meeting the minimum standards within the academic sphere. However, this does not prevent you from exploring other informational platforms such as opinion websites and discussion forums. You can look to such platforms for general ideas that can help you become more acquainted with the subject matter of your research.
An outline briefly highlights the main sections and ideas of your work. After the research, it is common for some people to downplay the importance of an outline and get straight into the writing process. An outline will guide you through the paper as you write so that you do not lose track and instead maintain a good flow of ideas. You can always make adjustments to the outline along the way as you proceed with the paper. You may be asking – why develop an outline if it is subject to change? A major benefit of it is that it ensures you do not get lost along the way. The outline will ensure you have a point of reference in case you feel like you are getting mixed up and unsure about how to move from one point to the next. You will avoid the risk of potentially having to start all over again simply because you cannot make sense of the direction of the paper. With an outline, you have a frame, and all you have to do is fill in the content that makes up the body of the essay.
The stakes are high when it comes to the introduction. a great introduction will hook the reader while a sloppy one will create a negative perception of the paper and cause you to lose valuable points. Often, it will determine the level of interest that the reader will have in your work as he or she goes through content in the body of the paper. It should present a relatively broad view of the topic and the thesis statement. From your introduction, the reader should get a sense of the direction of your paper moving. It should move from a broader sense and narrow down to the question or problem that you study – your thesis statement. Even though the introduction will constitute the first part of your paper, you do not have to pressure yourself to start with it. You can go straight to the body of the paper and come back to the introduction later once you are done with the rest of the paper.
It is in the body chapters where you will present ideas from the various research materials that you had identified earlier. Start with the strongest evidence first in order to support your thesis statement and express your point of view. Make sure to provide citations within the text indicating the respective authors whose work you used. Quotations should be marked using quotation marks and the relevant citations provided.
Each of the paragraphs should start with a topic sentence, which is primarily a statement in support of your main idea. After the first sentence of each paragraph, you should add supporting sentences that expound further on the idea in it. The concluding sentence will act as a bridge between a given paragraph and the following one.hershey cost accounting essay issues
In your conclusion, you should start with a restatement of the ideas mentioned in your introduction. Provide a summary of the main points discussed in your work. Do not include any new ideas in this part. Such action may cost you some marks as it defeats the purpose of the conclusion. It shows that you are not done discussing your arguments in the body of the paper. Wrap up the conclusion with a call to action.
Remember, there may be a need for other additional items in the paper depending on the instructor’s preferences including abstract, table of contents, footnotes, and an acknowledgment section. If you need a term paper writing assistance, you can turn to our professional team.
If you are an undergraduate or pursuing an advanced degree, sooner or later, you will be required to prepare an annotated bibliography. They are a important component of many different fields of study and academic activities. This article will explain exactly what annotated bibliographies are, why they are used, and how to write one.
An annotated bibliography is an organized list of academic resources, such as books, academic papers, or journal articles. However, unlike a standard bibliography, each reference in these types of papers is followed by a paragraph-length annotation, or descriptive and evaluative commentary to assist the reader in understanding the referenced item and its overall value to a field of research. Annotations are sometimes confused with abstracts, which are also 100-200-word descriptions of a source. However, an abstract is intended only to provide a descriptive summary. An annotation, on the other hand, evaluates a source as well, to help the reader gauge its value.
Such works are written for several reasons; here are four of the most common purposes for which you may write one:
There are two primary types of bibliographies:
Now that you have a general understanding of what such works are and why they are used for, let’s discuss how to create your very first one.
When you begin to write an annotated bibliography, the first thing you must do is to identify potential sources to include within it. If your university has a research library, that is one of the best places to begin your search. Most research libraries will have a comprehensive online catalog system that will enable you to search for potential sources. Additionally, there are several other online sites and databases you can use to search for sources; these sites include:
After concluding your search, you will likely find more sources than you could or should include in your work. Once you think you have a sufficient amount of sources on hand to move forward, you will have to determine the best way to narrow the scope of your annotated bibliography, so you can determine which sources to include in it and which to discard.
Your piece will not be useful to you or anyone else if it is not bound by some sort of logical constraints. In order to ensure that the works you annotate in your paper achieve their purpose, you must determine the scope of the sources that you will include in it. There are many different ways to focus the scope; here are four of the more common methods used:
Sometimes it may make sense to use more than one type of scoping methodology; in other cases, your professors or the assignment may dictate your scope. Once you have decided upon a scope, you will be ready to move on to the next step.
Once you have decided upon your scope, you will be ready to decide which sources to include in it. While your scope will help shape the sources you put into your work, there are other things you should also consider before including or discarding a potential source, such as:
Once you’ve thoroughly evaluated your potential sources, you will be ready to select the ones you believe are best suited to cite in your work.
Finally, once you have selected your sources, you can write an annotation for each source to create your annotated bibliography. In general, you will create your annotations by following these steps:
In general, an annotation should be approximately one paragraph consisting of 5-6 sentences, 100-200 words in total. Try to look at some examples of annotations prior to writing your first annotated bibliography; it will help you better understand the style of writing these types of papers.
Annotated bibliographies are important for advancing academic understanding in your chosen field of study. They will focus your understanding of a particular field; they will also help you share knowledge with others as well. If you follow the steps and advice provided here, you will be fully prepared to conduct your research, narrow your scope, select your sources, write your annotations, and complete your first annotated bibliography as soon as you receive the assignment, so good luck!
Many students have trouble understanding exactly what a thesis statement is, how to write one and what to do with it once it’s written. Although a thesis is introduced at the beginning of a paper, that doesn’t mean it’s always the first piece of the paper you write. In fact, many thesis statements go through several revisions while the paper is being written. Although tweaking is normal, the essence of your statement should remain the same throughout numerous revisions.
When you break it down, a thesis statement is simply the declaration of the position you are taking on a topic for your paper. There are five different types of thesis statement and each one sets the tone for the approach the paper will take to a specific topic.
Using one of these approaches when crafting a thesis statement will ensure you have set the tone for the paper and determined its direction. When writing this thesis statement be sure not to fall into common pitfalls of what a thesis statement isn’t.
A thesis statement is not…
Crafting an effective thesis statement doesn’t happen by accident. You should craft a working statement as you begin your paper. Consider your topic, the position you plan to take and how you want your paper to empower the reader. This will let you find the approach that best fits the tone, style and aim of your paper. Next, use this formula to help write the first draft of your thesis statement:
Topic + Verb / Action / Present situation + Results, effects, predictions, information or connection ( depending on the statement style you’ve chosen)
This simple formula won’t result in one of your finest literary moments, but it will give you the basis on which to build your paper, and your final statement. From there, you can build an outline and begin to flesh out the paper itself, all which being able to tweak the original thesis statement as needed. As you outline the body and conclusion of your paper, be sure to check back on your original thesis statement often to ensure the paper still fits with that statement. This will help to prevent your thoughts and writing from going off tangents which may confuse or distract your readers.
This simple approach to writing your thesis statement allows you to include the introduction of your topic, set the tone on the direction of the paper and even allude to your final conclusions. This bring a unity to your thoughts and ties your paper together even from the beginning. Finally, I gives you a chance to organize your own thoughts, determine your direction and begin your paper on the right foot.
How do you write your thesis statements? Offer up your best advice, tips and pointers in the comments section below!
Good communication is important for success in any job. Today, most written communication within a company happens over email. But depending on your position within the company you work for, you may be expected to send out memorandums from time to time. Memos may seem like an old school form of communication, but they still have their uses.
So, what is a memo, and how do you write one?
Memorandums ( often referred to as memos) are messages sent out to large groups of people within a company or institution. They are most often sent by management, though employees may need to send them as well. Memos are used for internal business or communication. They are not meant to be read by people outside the company.
Memos are simply way to disseminate information or make announcements. Today, they are typically sent out over email, though they may also be posted to bulletin boards around the office or distributed in the mailroom. More formal than standard emails, they don’t necessarily require a response, though a call to action may be included. To help you differentiate between emails and memos, try thinking of standard emails as a conversation—you send one expecting a reply—and a memo as an announcement put out over email.
First things first, check to see if your company has rules about writing memos. Many companies have guidelines regarding when it is appropriate and how to format them.
Generally speaking, anytime you have an announcement to make regarding the operations of a company, department, or institution, you can do so through a memo.
This could include but is not limited to:
Memos can even be used for simple things like reminding everyone that passwords reset on a certain date or announcing the company holiday party.
They are used most often as a way to communicate information, not to foster conversation. If you are looking for a conversation, a standard email is a better way to achieve that.
All memorandums start with a standard header that looks like this:
This is the opening of your memo. You do not include a personal salutation after this like you would in an email or letter. Begin with a heading, in larger font size than the rest of your text, that says “memorandum.” After that, fill in the rest of the information: who the memo is to, from, the date, and the subject of the memo.
Including this information makes it clear to the recipient that this is a memo, not a standard email. It also provides all the pertinent information upfront, making it clear what the memo is going to be about and who was meant to receive it. This way, anyone who may have received the memo by mistake can safely disregard it.
The first paragraph of your memo should clearly establish why you are writing the memo. Make the announcement you need to make or state the problem you are addressing. Keep this paragraph short and to the point. Think of it as your thesis statement, the support, and evidence for which will come in subsequent paragraphs.
Use your second paragraph to provide context for your announcement. If you are announcing changes in management, explain why the changes are necessary and when you can reasonably expect the changes to be complete. Be as transparent as you can. Fostering a good workplace environment relies on clear and open communication. If you are announcing quarterly sales figures, this would be the place to include any relevant data, including charts, graphs, or lists. Always provide citations for the data and facts included in your memorandum.
This is where you close your memo. If you expect your employees or coworkers to take a specific action in response to the memo, such as signing up to bring chips to the office party or resetting their password, include that here. Be specific about what you need people to do; don’t leave any room for creative interpretation. You may also indicate when further information on the subject discussed in the memo will be available, if applicable. Don’t forget to thank people for taking the time out of their busy day to read your memo.
There’s no right number of paragraphs for a memo, though three is a good number to start with. If you need more space than that to effectively communicate on the issue, take more space. If you find that your memo is quickly becoming longer than two pages, stop and consider whether a memo is the right way to get the information across.
Follow company guidelines. Many companies have internal standards for written communication. If your company has a memo template, use it. If they provide a style guide, follow it.
Use a template. If you are unsure about how to format your memo, and your company doesn’t provide guidelines, there are many templates available online that you can use.
Choose your audience carefully. Not every memo needs to go out company-wide. Share the information only with the people who need it. This avoids cluttering your coworker’s and employee’s inboxes with unnecessary emails, which is something we can all get behind.
Know your audience. This is good advice for anything you write. Know the people you are writing it for. Don’t write over their heads, and don’t provide more information than they want or need. Anticipate questions your audience may have about your announcement and answer as many as you can in the memo itself.
Keep it short. Memos are usually no longer than one page. However, there are situations in which longer memos may be required. Use your discretion while keeping it as short as possible. This shows your readers that you value their time, and you are not going to take it up unnecessarily. If you find your memo quickly becoming unwieldy, the information you need to convey may be better suited to an email, report, or meeting.
Stay on topic. Avoid including information not pertinent to your subject. Memos aren’t the place to chat and catch people up on the office gossip. Write what needs to be said, no more, no less. If you want to encourage your coworkers to read more information on the subject of the memo, include a link to other materials that they can peruse at their leisure.
Be specific. Include relevant dates and facts when you have them, so your coworkers and employees have ready access to accurate information. Avoid hypotheticals when possible.
Be professional. You may adopt a more casual tone in emails with your workplace BFF, but memorandums are official workplace documents. Your tone and word choice should reflect that. Write in complete sentences with a tone appropriate for a professional setting.
Be mindful of the calendar. If you are sending out a memo announcing the observance of a holiday, a mandatory meeting, or anything that is time-sensitive, send the memo out at least one week in advance of the relevant date. Do your coworkers and employees the courtesy of allowing them to adjust their schedules and plans accordingly.
Use subheadings. Subheadings are especially helpful if your memo is on the longer side. This will help your readers find the information they need easily. It also appeals to those who are skimmers rather than readers. And let’s face it, there will always be at least one person who skims official communication instead of reading it completely.
Use white space to your advantage. Avoid the wall of text look by writing short paragraphs and using numbered lists and bullet points when appropriate. People are more likely to read something all the way through if it is pleasing to look at.
Proofread. There’s no better way to undercut everything you’ve written than to have it riddled with errors. Take the time to proofread your memo before you send it out. If you have the time, wait to do the proofreading until the day after you write the memo. You are likely to catch more errors with fresh eyes than you are at the end of a long day. Ask a coworker to take a look as well if you can. The chances are high that they will find a stray comma or misspelling that you missed.
If you want to write a great memo, remember to keep things professional, short, and to the point. Say exactly what you need to say and include facts and additional information on the topic as necessary. Follow your company’s guidelines or a simple template and you can’t go wrong. Before you know it, you’ll be a memo writing expert.
Your resume is the way to promote yourself to future employers. It’s the very first thing they see before they meet you in person. Employers receive thousands of them every year, so the one that you are working on should provide a reason to pick you from the crowd.
Not sure where to start when it comes to writing your CV? Let’s talk about the three main resume formats you can choose from and how to decide which one is right for you.
The first thing you should do when sitting down to write a CV is to decide what format to use. Choosing the right format for you can help your resume stand out from the pack by highlighting your strengths and diminishing your weaknesses.
Chronological is the most common form of a CV. This format presents your education and work history in chronological order, beginning with the most recent job and working backwards. This is the go-to resume format for people with work experience or education that they want to highlight. This format should be avoided if you have no work experience or higher education, if there are large gaps in your work history, or if you are switching fields.
Functional ones are a great option for those who haven’t yet built up an extensive work history because the focus is on the applicant’s skills instead. Think of it as focusing on what you can do rather than what you have done. When writing a functional resume, list your skills before your work history and education.
Combination format is a good choice for those who want to highlight a selection of skills and past jobs that are not necessarily related to each other. This format combines aspects of the chronological and functional CVs to allow applicants to highlight both their work experience and extensive skill backgrounds.
Once you’ve decided which format you’re going to use, you can begin writing your piece.
Every CV should include some variation of the following sections: contact information, a career summary or objective, work experience, education, skills, certificates, and optional sections like hobbies/interests and languages.
Contact Information. Your personal data appears at the top, before anything else. It includes your name, location, email address, and phone number. It should go without saying, but it must be accurate. Potential employers need to be able to reach you if they want to schedule an interview, they can’t do that if you don’t provide the right data.
Career summary or objective. This is a short section (two or three sentences), appearing below the contact information, that clearly states why prospective employers should read your entire CV. Use these sentences to highlight the most important things about you. Mention what you do, how long you’ve been doing it, and highlight a relevant achievement or two. It’s important to capture the reader’s attention with these sentences. If you don’t, they may not read the entire text. Hiring managers and HR specialists don’t have time to read every CV they receive carefully. So, they might have a quick glance at another CV and put it aside if there is nothing catchy. Make sure they can’t help but read yours.
If you have little to no work experience, write an objective rather than a summary. The objective highlights your skills and achievements while making a statement about the type of work you are looking to do, or the company you are looking to work for. This is also a good idea for those looking to change careers because their goals and interests may not be conveyed in their current work history and skills.
Work experience. This is where you lay out your work experience, beginning with your most recent job. If you are new to the workforce, you may not have anything to put here, and that’s okay. If you have a long work history, focus only on the jobs that are relevant to your current career goals. For example, if you are applying for a position of a system engineer at a tech company, they don’t necessarily need to know that your first job was bagging groceries at the grocery store. When deciding which jobs to include in your work history, ask yourself how the job shows the hiring manager that you’re worth interviewing.
Education. If you are fresh out of school, education is likely to be your most robust section. If you have been in the workforce for some time, include only your highest and most relevant degrees. If the education section is going to be the highlight of your resume, consider including information about any major academic achievements and publications you’ve been published in during your academic career. Include your GPA only if it is above a 3.0.
Skills. The skills section is designed to allow you to highlight the specific skills you will bring to the company. Typically, these skills are presented in a bullet-pointed list. Include only the skills that are relevant to the job you are applying for. This means you’ll need to tailor your CV for each and every job you apply for.
Certificates. If you have any certificates relevant to the vacancy, include them in their own section. Certificates show employers that you go above and beyond when it comes to your education and professional development.
Hobbies/Interests. Employers like to know that you have interests outside of work. Some people choose to include a few of their interests or hobbies.
Languages. If you speak any additional languages, list them here.
Publications. If you have been published in a publication relevant to the job you are applying for, including the proper citation for your piece.