5]Chemical potential of an ideal gas the chemical potential µ of an ideal gas at a given temperature is related to its pressure p through eq.

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5]Chemical potential of an ideal gas the chemical potential µ of an ideal gas at a given temperature is related to its pressure p through eq.

Geography could be a factor to impede children from accessing basic services. Children in poor urban areas have difficulties in obtaining health facilities since they live in the area gathered by informal squatters. On the other hand, children in rural areas prone to be influenced by crop shocks as they are reliant on agriculture and natural resources for their livelihood (Unicef, 2011). Therefore, in Indonesia, flooding can be a serious issue rather than a drought for urban children because of a poor drainage system in the city centre. In contrast, a drought can affect rural children since they may depend on wells and hand pumps for water (Lawler and Patel, 2012). In terms of educational vulnerability, in Indonesia, 20% of rural children who joined the survey answered that they had to quit school because of a lack of money that is caused by a crop failure related to flooding or drought. Yet, only 1% of urban children claimed that impact (Unicef, 2011).

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Children show that they have a keen awareness of the risks facing their lives, recognising a combination of hazards. According to the research by Lawler and Patel (2012), children who joined the study in the Philippines reported that they are sensitive enough to have already realised heavier rainy seasons, an increase of flooding, crop failures and increase of food prices because of climate change. In addition, Back et al. (2009) show that children could be strong proponents to help their families, schools and communities adapt to climate change. For example, in Philippine, after they obtain information about climate change and disaster reduction at school or through media, children can have a distinct understanding of climate change adaptation and disaster risk. As a result, children can be more familiar with climate change impacts than adults. Based on the obtained knowledge in this way, children who had studied at school in a high-risk landslide zone were able to succeed in relocating their school in a safer location lobbying their school headmasters and communities (Mitchell et al., 2009). Also, children in community groups in Philippine, could identify some benefits of restoring mangroves and adapt to sea level rise mixing local knowledge and school textbooks and training sessions (Tanner, 2010). These case studies are successful examples of children-led approaches to adaptation. Hence, children can play a positive role to process climate change adaptation policy. However, it is crucial for them to have networks and corporate with locals and leaders who could listen to and support them.

Although children can lead to effective methods of climate change adaptation in some cases in spite of their vulnerabilities, it would be impossible for children to do so without education which may be said a crucial driver to enable them to take action for climate resilient sustainable development (Mitchell and Borchard, 2014; Anderson, 2010). Due to education, children can increase their knowledge, skills and understanding of successful climate change adaptation require. The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (UNISDR, 2007) suggests that targeting education and knowledge is a priority for climate adaptation and disaster reduction. Yet, this suggestion seems to be limited to penetrate into every school in Southeast Asia. Mitchell and Borchard (2014) claim that it is because that issues relevant to climate change can be ‘niche’ issues, it prevents them from incorporating into the national curriculum. Also, it can be said the suggestion by UNISDR is not a legally binding, resulting in that it depends on countries’ choice if they would follow this suggestion. Therefore, some countries think that their educational program does not have enough space to put in a climate change program. Moreoever, Unicef (2011) points out a lack of political will which means that the speed of governments’ implementation and development of robust technological and financial systems to advance policies and initiatives has been slow. If the government does not take action on incorporating climate change programs into their education programs because of these reasons on above, it would be difficult for children to be resilient to climate change and would remember to improve the capacities of climate change adaptation. Therefore, it can be crucial to make it legally binding. Indeed, in developing countries, even if it is legally binding, it may be suspicious about the effectiveness of its enforcement.ib biology essay questions dna Nevertheless, it could be a more effective program by involving NGOs and community members. For example, 2 global child-centred NGOs; Plan International and Save the children have actively engaged in building up of children and communities’ adaptation capacities (Mitchell and Borchard, 2014). Also, it can be said essential to set different programmes for children depending on their age. Regarding children as a homogenous group even within aged under 18 groups is a risk because of their different level of vulnerability (IPCC, 2012).

The Elderly and Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in the United States

Adults aged 65 and older composed about 15% of the U.S. population in 2017 and has been expected to increase to 20% (World Bank, 2019). In the U.S., in particular, extreme heat events (EHE) or heatwaves are the main factors to increase mortality rate, bringing about more deaths of the elderly than other weather-related situations (Luber and McGeehin, 2008; Ebi and Meehl, 2007). Looking at the factors of the elderly exposure to EHE and heatwaves in the U.S., there can be seen 2 main drivers; socioeconomic characteristics and urbanisation. Gamble et al. (2012) point out older people in lower income are reluctant to buy or utilise air conditioners because of operating costs, resulting in increasing more opportunities for them to exposure extreme heat waves. The rapid urbanisation has created an urban heat island and a demanding dramatic increase in electricity. In New York City in 2006, this demand led to brownouts to even public transport that older people tend to depend on (Luber and McGeehin, 2008). Targeting their adaptive capacity, their living situation can be a key determinant, that is different from that of children. Older people are more prone to live alone. In fact, in 2016, more than one-fourth of aged 65 and over live alone (Andrew et al., 2018). This situation may cause older people to face frauds and scams relevant to repairs and refurbishment of houses.

Considering their vulnerability to heat waves, education and community capabilities are essential strategies of climate change adaptation for older people. Al-Rousan et al. (2014) found out that two-thirds of participants had no emergency plans, never joined any disaster preparedness programmes and were unaware of available resources. As mentioned above, since the U.S. has a large number of older people living alone, education can contribute to informing them of relevant information and making them acknowledge their vulnerability level. Also, it can provide opportunities with them to get together with other people because they tend to be isolated from society. Those who face social isolation, in particular with mental illness, might miss receiving emergency information, which in turn bring about more deaths (Gamble et al., 2012). The older belong to the community and strengthen communities’ capabilities can reduce their vulnerability to climate change. As a way of example, developing early warning systems in communities could decrease the elderly’s mortality rate and heat-related illness (Ebi et al., 2007). The elderly can also learn how to reduce the health impacts on themselves owing to belong to the communities. Moreover, they would play a valuable role in sharing their past climatic histories with other members in communities. Therefore, these 2 adaptation strategies would be crucial especially for the elderly.

Conclusion

The impacts of climate change on people is now more and more serious all over the world. Children and the elderly are extremely vulnerable to climate change because of various vulnerabilities; psychological, physical, physiological and educational vulnerability. Also, children, who are defined under 18 years old, and older people, who are defined aged 65 and over should not be treated as homogeneous groups because their vulnerable levels and adaptation capacities could be different. Children in Southeast Asia are more sensitive to natural hazards and will play a key role to support families and communities to climate change if they are given climate change programmes. Therefore, the government should set environmental programmes as mandatory modules for them to increase their vulnerability levels and avoid young victims. In the U.S., where ageing society is a serious problem, the elderly are more vulnerable because of living situations and urbanisation. To protect them from not only heat waves but also other various natural disasters, education and developing climate resilience methods by involving them in communities can be the most effective climate change adaptation strategies. However, their background and characteristics are diverse enough to need more research to develop adaptation strategies that can decrease their vulnerability to climate stressors.

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2578 words (10 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Chemistry Reference this

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A partial molar property is the contribution (per mole) that a substance makes to an overall property of a mixture. The easiest partial molar property to visualize is the partial molar volume, vj of a substance j the contribution j makes to the total volume of a mixture. we can see that although 1 mol of a substance has a characteristics volume when it is pure,1 mol of that substance could make different contributions to the total volume of a mixture because molecules pack together in different ways in the pure substance and in mixture.

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the partial molar volume at an intermediate composition of the watterethanol mixture is an indication of the volume the H2o molecules occupy when they are surrounded by a mixture of molecules representative of the overall composition(half water, half ethanol) for instance. when the molar fraction are both 0’s.

The partial molar volume, VJ, of any substance J at a general composition, is defined as:

where the subscript n’ indicates that the amount of all the other substances is held constant.

The partial molar is the slope of the plot of the total volume as the amount of J is changed with all other variables held constant:

it is quite possible for the partial molar volume to be negative, as it would be at II in the above diagram. For example, the partial molar volume of magnesium sulphate in water is -1.4cm3 mol-1. i.e. addition of 1 mol MgSO4 to a large volume of water results in a decrease in volume of 1.4 cm3. (The contraction occurs because the salt breaks up the open structure of water as the ions become hydrated.)

Once the partial molar volumes of the two components of a mixture at the composition and temperature of interest are known, the total volume of the mixture could be calculated from:

The expression could be extended in an analogous fashion to mixtures with any number of components.

The most common method of measuring partial molar volumes is to measure the dependence of the volume of a solution upon its composition. The observed volume can then be fitted to a function of the composition (usually using a computer), and the slope of this function could be determined at any composition of interest by differentiation.

The most useful partial molar quantity is the partial molar free energy Gi,pm. It is so useful that it is given the name of chemical potential and a separate sumbol µi . the chemical potential is just another name for the molar Gibbs energy. For a substance in a mixture, the chemical potential is defined as being the partial molar Gibbs energy:

i.e. the chemical potential is the slope of a plot of the Gibbs energy of the mixture against the amount of component J, with all other variables held constant:

In the above plot, the partial molar Gibbs energy is greater at I than at II.

The total Gibbs energy of a binary mixture is given by:

where the sum is across all the different substances present in the mixture, and the chemical potentials are those at the composition of the mixture.

This indicates that the chemical potential of a substance in a mixture is the contribution that substance makes to the total Gibbs energy of the mixture.

In general, the Gibbs energy depends upon the composition, pressure and temperature. Thus G may change when any of these variables alter, so for a system that has components A, B, etc, it is possible to rewrite the equation dG = Vdp – SdT ( which is a general result that was derived here) as follows:

The idea that the changing composition of a system can do work should be familiar – this is what happens in an electrochemical cell, where the two halves of the chemical reaction are separated in space ( at the two electrodes) and the changing composition results in the motion of electrons through a circuit, which can be used to do electrical work.

it is possible to use the relationships between G and H, and G and U, to generate the following relations:

Now H=U+PV

To measure partial molar volumes

There are several ways that partial molar volumes can be measured. One way is to begin with one mole of a compound, call it component 1, add a small amount of component 2 and measure the volume, add a little more of component 2 and measure the volume again. Keep doing this until the desired concentration range has been covered. Then fit the volume data to a curve, for example, of the form,

The constants, a, b, c, etc are obtained from the curve fitting and the first term is the molar volume of pure component 1. Then the partial molar volume of component 2 can be obtained by direct differentiation,

We will define a ideal solution as a solution for which the chemical potential of each component is given by,

whereis the chemical potential of pure component i, and Xi is the mole fraction of component i in the solution.

whereis the vapor pressure of pure component i.)

We have to prove that an ideal solution obeys Raoult’s law (using definition).

Consider a solution of two components where the mole fraction of component 1 is X1. We know that the chemical potential of component 1 must be the same in the solution as in the vapor in equilibrium with the solution. That is,

Equation 10 doesn’t help us very much all by itself. However we have some more information. We know that for the pure component 1 we have X1 = 1, and we know that the pressure of component 1 vapor in equilibrium with the liquid is just the vapor pressure of the pure liquid, p1*, so that,

that is Raoult’s law.

[5]Chemical potential of an ideal gas

the chemical potential µ of an ideal gas at a given temperature is related to its pressure p through eq.

µ=µ + RT ln(p/p0) (15)

where µo is the standard chemical potential once the when the pressure of the gas is po,

equation 15 suggest that at a given temperature, the pressure of the gas is a measure of its chemical potential. if inequalities in pressure exist in a gas container, the gas flows spontaneously from the high pressure region to the lower pressure region until the pressure is equalized throughout the vessel. In the later stage, the gas has the same value of chemical potential throughout the container.

The chemical potentials are the key properties in chemical thermodynamics. the µi determine reaction equilibrium and phase equilibrium. Moreover, all other partial molar properties and all thermodynamics properties of the solution can be found from the µi ‘s

Partial molar properties are useful because chemical mixtures are often maintained at constant temperature and pressure and under these conditions, the value of any extensive property can be obtained from its partial molar property. They are especially useful when considering specific properties of pure substances (that is, properties of one mole of pure substance) and properties of mixing.

Δmix H ≡ H – H*, Δ mixS≡ S – S*, ΔmixG≡G – G*

Where H,S and G are properties of the solutions and H*,S*, And G* are properties of the pure unmixed components at the same T and P as the solution.

the key mixing quantity is ΔmixG =G – G*. The Gibbs energy G of the solution is

G=iGi(where Gi is a partial molar quantity). The gibbs energy G* of the unmixed components is G*=iG*m,i(where G*m,i is the molar Gibbs energy of pure substance i). Therefore

ΔmixG≡ G – G* = i(Gi – G*m,i) const T,P (1)

that is similar for ΔmixV. we have

ΔmixG = ΔmixH – TΔmixS const T,P (2)

which is a special case of ΔG =ΔH – TΔS at constant T.

ΔmixS and ΔmixV can be found as partial derivatives of ΔmixG. Taking (T,nj of eq(1), we have

= i – G*m,i) = i T,nj –

= i(Vi – V*m,i)

T,nj =ΔmixV (3)

The changes ΔmixV, ΔmixU, ΔmixH, ΔmixCp that accompany solution formation are due entirely to changes in intermolecular interactions( both energetic and structural). However, changes in S,A and G result not only from changes in intermolecular interactions but also from the unavoidable increase in entropy that accompanies the constant T and P mixing of substance and the simultaneous increase in volume each component occupies. Even when the intermolecular interactions in the solution are the same as in the pure substances, ΔmixS and ΔmixG will still be no zero.

A relation that imposes a condition on the composition variation of the set of chemical potentials of a system of two or more components, where Sis entropy, Tabsolute temperature ,Ppressure, nithe number of moles of the ith component, and μiis the chemical potential of the ith component. Also known as Duhem’s equation.

Deriving the Gibbs-Duhem equation for volume. The total differential of the Gibbs free energy in terms of its natural variables is

With the substitution of two of the Maxwell relations and the definition of chemical potential, this is transformed into:

the chemical potential is just another name for the partial molar ( or just partial, depending on the units of N) Gibbs free energy, thus

The total differential of this expression is

Subtracting the two expressions for the total differential of the Gibbs free energy gives the Gibbs-Duhem relation:

The presences of molecular interactions distinguish the real gases from ideal gases where the molecular interactions are completely absent. For a real gas Vm ≠ RT/P and hence dµ≠RT d ln P. Since the ideal gas equations are not directly applicable to real gases, we are faced with a problem. We can either sacrifice the equations or the variable. If we abandon the general equation of chemical potential then we have to use various equation of state fitting with P-V-T data. The use of such equations of state will make the treatment more complicated. So we find it easier to retain the general form of the chemical potential and to define a new variable which has the dimensions and general properties of pressure. The new variable is called the fugacity, that is derived from the Latin fugere, to flee, and means literally ‘escaping tendency’. It is denoted by f. it is a corrected pressure which applies to real gases. all the effects arising due to interactions are contained in f.

the chemical potential of a pure real gas can be expressed in a form

µ=µo + RT ln(f/atm)

µo is the standard chemical potential at unit fugacity.

at very low pressure . the ratio (f/p) = γ is called the fugacity coefficient. for an ideal gas f=p and the fugacity coefficient is unity.

with this definition of the fugacity we may now express the chemical potential as:

µ=µo + RT ln(γP/atm) = µo + RT ln(P/atm) + RT ln γ

on compairing this expression with that for an ideal gas[µideal = µo + RT ln(P/atm)

Condition of fugacity of a gas

Let us consider the relation dµ= VmdP

dµ = Vm(ideal)dP and dµ(real) = Vm(real) dP

Let us consider a change in the state of the system from an initial pressure p´ to a final pressure P, and let f´ be the fugacity of the real gas at pressure P´ and f the fugacity at pressure P. Integration of the expression for chemical potential yields

(ideal) = m(ideal)dP

or µ(ideal) – µ´(ideal) = m(ideal)dP

and µ(real) – µ´(real) = m(real)dP

but for a ideal gas the chemical potential is given by

µ(ideal) = µo(ideal) + RT ln(P/atm)

µ´(ideal) = µo(ideal) + RT ln(P´/atm)

µo is the standard chemical potential.

µ(ideal)- µ´(ideal) = RT ln(P/P´) = m(ideal)dP (1)

For the real gas µ(real) = µo(real) + RT ln(f/atm)

and µ´(real) = µo(real) + RTln(f/atm)

µ(real) – µ´(real) = RT ln(f/atm) – RT ln(f´/atm)

= RT ln(f/f´) = m(ideal)dP (2)

Taking the difference of equation (2) and (1), we get

RT ln(f/f´) – RT ln(P/P´) = m(real) – Vm(ideal)]dP

or RT ln(f/P) – RT ln(f´/P´) = m(real) – Vm(ideal)]dP (3)

where = Vm(ideal) – Vm(real)

now, = +

RT ln(f/p) – RT ln(f´/P´) = – + (4)

If the pressure P´ is very low then the gas will behave ideally and for this condition

Vm(ideal) ≈ Vm(real) and = 1, The second term or left side and right side of equation (4) will be equated to zero, therefore

RT ln(f/P) = –

or ln(f/P) = -1/RT

Antilograthim gives

(f/P) = exp

or f= P exp(

= P exp[Vm(real) – Vm(ideal) )]dP (5)

we had covered in this term paper about partial molar properties one important thing is The properties of a solution are not additive properties, it means volume of solution is not the sum of pure components volume. When a substance becomes a part of a solution it looses its identity but it still contributes to the property of the solution. The term partial molar property is used to designate the component property when it is a mixture with one or more component solution.

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the most important partial molar quantity is the partial molar free energy it is an intensive property because it is a molar quantity.it is denoted by µi.now we also know that how to measure the partial volume. and then the ideal solution is the solution in which the components in pure form here we take the pure components of chemical potential . then the applications of partial molar property is the property of mixing that is very useful. it is defined in term paper

and the important concept Gibbs duhem equation a relation that imposes a condition on the composition variation of the set of chemical potentials of a system of two or more components

physical significance is that if the composition varies,the chemical potentials do not change independently but in a related way.and then included fugacity another important part of partial molar properties. The fugacity f plays the role of pressure and need not be equal to the actual pressure of the real gas.

The overall result is the partial molar property is not of all about pure components. The term partial molar property is used to designate the component property when it is a mixture with one or more component solution. and also find out the chemical potential other name of gibbs energy and about ideal gases, fugacity.

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1972 words (8 pages) Essay

24th Apr 2017 Nursing Reference this

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Nurses are faced with many legal or ethical dilemmas, the Nurse’s Handbook of Law & Ethics (1992) states that nurses should “integrate knowledge of ethical and legal aspects of health care and professional values into nursing practice”. It is important to know what types of dilemmas nurses may face during their careers and how they may have been dealt with in the past. In this paper I will address one of these dilemmas in the form of a critical incidence and outline the legal and ethical problems, I will also give my personal reflective thoughts to show learning and understanding.

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As a student nurse I have encountered a number of critical incidents that I have wanted to reflect on to improve my practice. The critical incident that I am targeting in this essay deals with issues of neglect, duty of care and a lack of communication and awareness between professionals and patients. Through this critical incident, I will explore the issues from a professional, legal and ethical perspective. Showing how through reflection, i will learn both personally and professionally how to become a better nurse. In this essay I will discuss my understanding of reflection using a reflective model. This will be followed by an analysis of the incident and what ethical and legal borders were crossed. In accordance with the Nursing and Midwifery Code of Conduct (NMC 2008) all names and placement details will be concealed, and I will refer to the patient as Mrs. an at all times.

Refection is an important tool for a nurse, it offers a ‘vehicle through which we can communicate and justify the importance of practice and practice knowledge’ Bulman and Schtuz (2004, p1) .

There are two forms of reflection, refection-in-action and reflection-on-action. Reflection in action is ‘to think about what one is doing whilst one is doing it; it is typically stimulated by surprise, by something which puzzled the practitioner concerned”(Greenwood, 1993). Schon (1987, p26) believes that the patient will ‘Stop and think‘pause and’ in the midst of action’. I do believe that this happens in practice and a benefit of this type of reflection is it shows more intelligent thinking however a disadvantage is it would take up valuable time when stopping to think about all your action.

Reflection on action is defined as “The retrospective contemplation of practice undertaken in order to uncover the knowledge used in practical situations, by analysing and interpreting the information recalled” (Fitzgerald, 1994pp67). Reflection on action involves looking back in hindsight and turning the information from the incident into knowledge to use later on.

Alternatively Boyd & Fales suggest reflection on action is “The process of creating and clarifying the meanings of experiences in terms of self in relation to both self and world. The outcome of this process is changed conceptual perspectives” (Boyd & Fales, 1983pp113). None of these views however take into consideration reflection before action, as we plan out our acts before we do them.

There are many reflective models that show how to reflect on situations properly and learn from them, the one I have chosen for the purpose of my essay is Gibbs model of Reflection (1998).

Gibbs model Confronts practitioners to consider their normal way of thinking and responding within the situation towards gaining insight into self and practice (Johns

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